Congenital Heart Defects

Congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly, is generally referred to a problem in the structure of the heart that is present from the time of birth. Since it occurs at birth, it varies from person to person. The cause of a congenital heart defect is usually not known. It may be due to infections during pregnancy, due to the usage of drugs such as alcohol or due to the poor nutritional habits of the mother. There are a number of genetic conditions associated with the heart defects namely Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Marfan syndrome.

Types Of Congenital Heart Defects

  • Cyanotic Heart Defect: It is a type of CHD that usually occurs due to the deoxygenated blood directly entering the circulation bypassing the lungs. It is caused by the structural defects of the heart, the result being due to the development of collateral circulation.
  • Acyanotic Heart Defect: It is another type of CHD. In this defect, the blood flows from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart due to a hole in the interventricular septum. This term is outdated as a person with an acyanotic heart defect may show cyanosis.

Methods Of Early Diagnosis

  • Early And Second-Trimester Fetal Echocardiography
  • The database of our fetal medicine will be searched for all patients who had undergone this fetal echocardiography at 11 to 14 weeks. The diagnosis is established by postnatal echocardiography or surgery.

Symptoms Of Congenital Heart Defect
General symptoms of congenital heart defect can include excessive sweating, extreme fatigue, poor feeding, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, chest pain, cyanosis and clubbed fingernails. There are also some associated symptoms of CHD, which together can be called Vacterl. V- Vertebral anomalies, A- Anal atresia, C- Cardiovascular anomalies, T- Tracheoesophageal fistula, E- Esophageal atresia, R- Renal and L- Limb defects.

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