Kidney

The kidneys as we know are two organs present in the mid-section on either side of the spine in the middle of the back, just above the waist. These cleanse the blood, maintain the balance of salt and minerals in blood, and also, help in controlling blood pressure.

Types Of Kidney Diseases
There are a number of diseases that occur in the kidney or nearby regions of the organ and can cause a lot of damage to a kidney. Following are some of the main diseases of kidneys—

  • Acute Kidney Injury - Sudden loss of the functions of the kidney is referred to as Acute kidney injury. It has three main causes:
    * Lack of flow of blood to kidneys.
    * Direct damage to kidneys.
    * Backing up of urine in the kidneys.
  • Chronic Kidney Diseases - Kidneys when stop working after the duration of 3 months, then this dis-function is known as Chronic kidney diseases. The symptoms of this disease sometimes cannot be found even after it has done lot of damage, which further cannot be healed or treated and hence, is considered dangerous. It is caused by Diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Immune System Diseases - Long-term viral diseases such as HIV/aids, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, cause a lot of problems and come under this category.
  • Urinary Tract Diseases/ Infections -  Infections within kidneys called as pyelonephoritis can lead to multiple damage of kidneys.
  • Polycystic Kidney Diseases - The formation of many fluid containing cysts in kidneys give rise to such diseases.


Symptoms
In chronic kidney diseases, early diagnosis is important. Some of the important symptoms include:

  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Only small amounts of urine.
  • Swelling of ankles and puffiness around eyes.
  • Unpleasant taste in the mouth.
  • Excessively dry skin.
  • Muscle cramps, especially in the legs.
  • Pale skin, and
  • Loss of appetite.

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